Quantity Surveying – its 3 [Type Of Areas, Estimation & Bills]

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Quantity Surveying

Quantity surveying means calculating the number of materials like the total area to be finished, the total volume of the concrete and total weight of reinforcement bars are calculated and then for the cost of all materials estimation process is done before the construction or during the construction work.

In quantity surveying, there is a team of professional advisers to the construction industry and they estimate and monitor construction costs from the starting stage of the project to the completion of construction. Quantity surveyors work closely with engineers, architects, contractors, suppliers, accountants, and project owners, etc.

quantity surveying

In quantity surveying, the surveyors use their knowledge of construction methods and advise the owners on the most economical way of achieving their requirements at low costs. To establish a project budget quantity surveyor may use techniques like cost planning, cost analysis, estimating, and value management.

Through cost management, during design, the quantity surveyors ensure that the design remains on budget, and on completion of drawings and designs the quantity surveyor may prepare a bill of quantities and cost estimation which is provided to the contractor for use in tenders submitting.

quantity surveying 2


Based on certain rates of materials and labor quantity surveying is an assessment of the cost and in any construction project estimation is undoubtedly the most important aspect and good estimation ensures optimum use of materials and saves the expenditure to a great extend.

Study of Drawings:

Before proceeding to take out quantities from the drawing the quantity surveyor must have enough knowledge to study the drawings.

study of drawings

Many errors can be avoided if the following steps are taken;

  1. To visualize the work entitled to look over the drawings and attempt.
  2. Make sure they are in agreement with one another.
  3. To see the plans, elevations, sections, and details check drawings carefully.
  4. If serious errors are discovered then the architect should be informed.
  5. In some places, if the dimensions do not exist in some places then it is always better to note and write them.

Bill of Quantities:

When the building owner wants to know before the starting stage of construction that what the cost of his building would be then the quantity surveyors calculate the detailed quantities to be worked in accordance with the requirements and these quantities form a bill of quantities when these quantities collected together into a bill.

bill of quanitities

There are following advantages of the bill of quantities such as;

  1. For competitive tendering, if forms a common basis.
  2. For measured work that can be used in the project, it forms a basis of rates.
  3. For the completion of interim payments, it is used in building operations.


Before construction starting stage the estimate is the probable cost of an item or work which is prepared.

The detailed and accurate estimate of all costs consists of two parts;

  1. Quantity Take Off (QTO)
  2. Abstract of Estimate Form (AEF)

Quantity Take-Off; (QTO)

From the plan, section, and elevation details of the building quantity takeoff gives the detailed measurements of the quantities and it is in the tabular column form.

Abstract Estimate Form; (AEF)

It is calculated in a tabular form and gives the cost of each item of work.

Types of Quantity Surveyors:

There are two types of quantity surveyors as given below;

  1. Consultant / Professional Quantity surveyor
  2. Contractor’s Quantity Surveyor / Construction Estimator

Consultant / Professional Quantity surveyor:

  1. Related to clients cost professional quantity surveyor done his job and in the building process shows the managerial skills. A professional quantity surveyor can estimate the construction cost before its design and shears their thoughts to the client.
  2. Professional quantity surveyor performs multiple jobs like cost estimating, value management, cost planning, life cycle costing, valuations, etc and they are one of the most renowned quantity surveyors.
  3. Professional quantity surveyors have full knowledge of construction costs like knowledge of cost price, work price, labor cost, and material cost, etc, and these factors help the quantity surveyors.

Contractor’s Quantity Surveyor / Construction Estimator:

In both construction and post-construction stages these quantity surveyors work under the contractor company and contractor quantity surveyor does many works like estimation, planning, project management, regular checking of projects, and administration.

For the performance of various work and operations, he is also responsible that includes the estimation of work and the cost of building projects and keeps in mind that usually this part of work is done by sub-contractor and he reports to the contractor’s quantity surveyors.

Types of Areas in Quantity Surveying:

For a particular job, the types of areas in quantity surveying serve as a guide to the contractor.

There are three types of areas in quantity surveying as given below;

  1. Carpet Area
  2. Built-Up Area
  3. Super Built-Up Area

Carpet Area:

For the exclusive use of the buyer, the carpet area is the area within the walls of an apartment and the terrace and balconies are usually considered as half the actual area while computing the carpet area.

Built-Up Area:

Built-Up area is sometimes known as the Plinth Area and it is typically 10% to 20% more than the carpet area and the built-up area also includes the carpet area and thickness of columns, external walls, and internal walls.

Super Built-Up Area:

Super built-up area is also called Saleable Area and it includes the built-up area along with the common amenities like the area of the lobby, lift shafts, corridor, etc, and also common useable areas such as swimming pool, garden, and clubhouse, etc.

From this area, the builder will determine the cost of the building.

Crapet-Built-up & Super built-up areas

Advantages of Quantity Surveying:

There are following advantages of quantity surveying such as;

  1. In the construction industry quantity surveying is a highly respected profession.
  2. In quantity surveying, the surveyors give you more confidence in getting a good end result.
  3. Quantity surveying gives you the construction cost during or before the construction.
  4. For building projects, quantity surveying gives the best cost for the structure.
  5. Quantity surveying can control your cost during construction.
  6. By quantity surveying, you can select low-cost methods.

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