A column is the vertical structural member which can carry compressive forces and it is responsible to transfer the loads from slabs to beam to the foundation. The column is the most important structural member of the building; without the column, you cannot construct RCC building or structure (Strong).
Additional loads from the snow, wind and other horizontal forces can cause the column to bend. Columns can also carry primary axial loads and designed for compression.
Before going in the detail of columns types lets clear the following concepts first,
Buckling is also known as a failure in the column due to compressive action on the structural member or element.
The sudden large failure or deformation of the structure due to a slight increase of an existing load under which the structure has exhibited little.
The columns are classified into different types according to RCC column, According to load and based on lengths, so let’s jump into the detail.
Types of columns:
We differentiated the RCC column according to the,
Members reinforced with the longitudinal bars and lateral ties.
Member reinforced with the longitudinal bars and the continuous spirals.
Composite compression member reinforced with structural steel shapes, pipe and with or without longitudinal bars and lateral reinforcements.
The main types are,
1: Tied columns
The column in which the lateral ties are closely spaced throughout the column.
The spacing of ties is limited and close enough to prevent barrelling failures and far enough to not interface the setting of concrete.
According to ACI 7.10.5: The ties vertical spacing must be in between 16D oflongitudinal bar (D is the diameter of the bar) and 48D from the ties diameter.
If the ties spacing is too far the column then may face a shear failure.
2: Spiral columns
Are those columns in which the helical bar wrapping around the column longitudinal reinforcements.
The spirals around column provide support and prevent column for barreling.