Rubble masonry is generally used in the construction of walls and in this masonry the blocks of stones that are used are either comparatively roughly dressed or undressed are laid in a suitable mortar.
Rubble masonry is the type of stone masonry and in this masonry, the joints are not of uniform thickness and dry-stone rubble walls are the most basic form of this masonry which is used in rural areas and popular with landscapes looking areas.
The strength of this masonry depends on the quality of mortar, the use of long through stones, and the proper filling of mortar between the spaces.
Types of Rubble Masonry:
There are three basic types of this masonry such as;
Random Rubble Masonry
Squared Rubble Masonry
Dry Rubble Masonry
Random Rubble Masonry:
In this masonry either undressed or hammer dressed stones are used and known as random rubble masonry.
Random masonry is also divided into two types;
Un-coursed Random Rubble Masonry;
In this type of masonry, stones are laid without forming courses and this is the roughest and cheapest type of masonry and, stones used in this masonry are of different shapes and sizes. All projecting corners of stones are slightly knocked off before lying and joints are filled and flushed. To increase their strength large stones are used at corners and at jambs.
In the case of ordinary buildings, this masonry is used for the construction of walls of low height.
Coursed Random Rubble Masonry;
In this type of rubble, masonry stones are laid in level courses and at certain intervals, headers of one coursed height are placed and the stones are hammer dressed.
Coursed random masonry is used for the construction of residential buildings, boundary walls, godowns, etc.
Squared Rubble Masonry:
In square R masonry, the face stones are squared on all joints and beds by hammer dressing before their actual laying.
There are two types of masonry;
Coursed Square Rubble Masonry;
In this type of masonry, the chisel or hammer a dressed stone laid in courses, and this masonry consists of stones which are square on all joints, and in courses of equal layers, the stones are to be laid. The joints should also be uniform.
For the construction of public buildings, hospitals, schools, and modern residential buildings this type of masonry is used.
Un-Coursed Square Rubble Masonry;
In this type of masonry hammer dressed stones are laid without making courses and it consists of stones which are squared on all joints. All the stones are of different sizes.
For the construction of ordinary buildings in hilly areas where the good quality of stones are available, this type of masonry is used.
Dry Rubble Masonry;
In dry rubble, masonry stones are laid without using any mortar and it is an ordinary masonry and used for the construction of the wall not more than 6m height. It is the cheapest but in construction, more skilled manpower is required and for non-load bearing walls like compound wall this type of masonry is used.
There are following advantages of this masonry such as;
It improves fire protection for the building and for the same reason fireplaces are commonly made of masonry.
Against rotting, pests, weather, and natural disasters this masonry offers high resistance.
It provides an attractive rustic or elegant look for a home or building depending on the material used.
This masonry can stand with large amounts of compressive weight loads and is durable and resistant.
The thermal mass of buildings increases by these masonry units.
It has longer lifespans.
There are also some disadvantages of this masonry such as;
Construction of such masonry involves heavy stones and due to heavyweights, the transportation is not easy.
The crack occurs if any settling of the foundation occurs.
It cannot be done in rainy or freezing conditions.