Concrete is a composite mixture of materials (coarse, fine aggregates, cement with water). It has high compressive strength and low tensile strength. The modulus of elasticity of concrete is different for different mixes. The concrete fails under the tensile stresses. At the low stresses, the elasticity of concrete is constant and at high stresses, the cracking starts to develop.
The concrete has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion. Under tension and shrinkage stresses, all concrete structures will crack to some extent. As we now concrete show different properties under different water-cement ratios and having a different concrete mix (M15, M20, etc).
It is defined as the ratio between the normal stress to normal strain below the proportional limit of a material called modulus of elasticity Ec.
Modulus of elasticity = unit stress/unit strain
With the compressive strength test on the concrete specimen (cylinder of 15 cm diameter and 30 cm length having a volume 15 cm cube), the modulus of elasticity of concrete is calculated with the help of stress and strain graph.
According to ACI codes, the modulus of elasticity of concrete can e measure with the formula, And with normal density or weight of concrete, these two relationships can be simplified as,
Ec = Modulus of elasticity of concrete.
f’c = Compressive strength of concrete.
ACI 318–08, (Normal weight concrete) the modulus of elasticity of concrete is , Ec =4700 √f’cMpa and
IS:456 the modulus of elasticity of concrete is 5000√f’c, MPa.
The main factors which may affect the values determination of modulus of elasticity are,
Strength of concrete
State of Wetness of Concrete:
This table showed that we get different elasticity in different mixes,
Gpa = Gigapascal
Mpa = Megapascal
The value of modulus of elasticity of concrete may vary and depends on the followings factors,
Coarse aggregate properties.
The density of the concrete is around 150 lb/cu ft or (2,400 kg per cubic meter).
It is defined as the ability of the material to come back to its original position (size and shape) after releasing forces.
The elasticity behaviour is different for different materials.
By applying forces, the lattice of material changes its shape and size and goes back to its original positions after releasing force.