The brick bonds are the designs in which bricks are laid and used in the walls and also for brick paving for paths and patios and also for concrete blocks and other kinds of masonry constructions.
In maximizing the strength & durability of the structure, to enhance the visual appeal and, bring in uniformity to the structure and composition, brick bonds play a huge role.
There are many types of brick bonds with its own unique look, challenges of installation, and structural considerations in the case of walls.
Brick Bonds Working:
Most of the brick bonds require bricks or other masonry units of at least compatible sizes or same size and uniform sizing creates a regular, repeatable pattern that can be applied over any size of the area.
To the neighboring courses, many bond patterns include some method of interlocking each row of brick and the stacks can easily topple if you stack up bricks in single-file columns.
To make a mortared wall even stronger the bond adds strength to the construction and keep in mind that the thickness of the mortar is added to the unit size of each brick when using mortar between bricks.
Types of Brick Bonds:
There are the following types of brick bonds as given below;
Rat Trap Bond
In a stretcher bond, all the bricks are laid as lengthwise stretchers and also one of the most common brick bonds and also known as running bonds.
When walls of half brick thickness need to be constructed stretcher bond is suitable and by using this kind of bond different types of wall construction is done such as;
For stand-alone structural walls, stretcher bonds are not very suitable but for construction of walls with less thickness, these are very useful.
Keep in mind that if the thickness of the wall is more than half of the total length of the brick used then this bond will fail.
All bricks are constructed in the header course in header bond brick masonry and the overlap is performed corresponding to a half-width of the bricks in this bond.
As quoins, the three-quarter brickbats are utilized in alternative courses and for the construction of one brick thick walls, this bond is mainly used.
English bond essentially comprises alternating courses of headers and stretchers and in masonry works, it is one of the most commonly utilized variations of brick bonds.
Over the stretchers in the course below, headers are laid centered and each alternate row is vertically aligned, and a quoin closer is used at the start and end of a wall after the first header to break the continuousness of vertical joints.
A quoin close is used in the corners in brick walls and is a brick that is cut lengthwise into 2 halves. To construct strong one brick thickness walls this type of bond is mainly used.
Each course is made up of alternate headers and stretchers for this type of bond, and on a stretcher above & below each header is centered, and in the corner, every alternate course begins with a header.
The quoin closers are introduced in alternate courses next to the header for breaking the vertical joints in the successive courses.
These types of brick bonds are sub-divided into two types;
Single Flemish Bond; This type is the combination of English bond and Flemish Bond and in every single course, the front surface of the wall is composed of Flemish bong while the back surface is composed of English bond.
Double Flemish Bond; Both in the front and the back elevations, this bond takes a similar appearance.
All the bricks are plainly loaded on top of each other and held with mortar where all bonds are perfectly aligned in these types of brick bonds.
Stack bonds are perfect for decorative purposes because of its weak masonry structure and less strength and for walls that require transferring loads, this bond is not suitable.
Dutch bond consists of alternate courses of headers and stretchers and is a modified form of the English cross bond. To construct strong corners along the wall which are subjected to excess loads this bond is perfect.
In this bond, every stretcher course starts with a three-quarter brick and in every alternate stretcher course in the header is placed after the three-quarter brick.
To the English Bond, this bond is similar but in every five or six courses this type of bond has courses of headers inserted and with the previous header course, header courses are centered.
Between the fronting and the backing, this header bond basically acts as a tie brick and queen closers are inserted at both ends of the header courses to achieve the sufficient offset in a standard common bond.
In exterior load-bearing walls, the common bond is normally used.
For thick walls, where the facing and backing are chosen to be constructed with bricks of diverse thickness facing bond is primarily adopted.
Facing bonds consists of a heading and stretching courses that are arranged in a manner such that one heading course comes after quite a lot of stretching courses and using this bond is not uniform for load distribution of walls because of the difference between the facing and the total number of joints.
For walls of two to four brick thickness, this bond is best suited and at every 5th or 7th course along with the height of the wall, this bond is normally introduced.
In this bond, bricks are placed end to end in such a way that extreme corners of the sequence remain in contact with the stretchers.
Rat Trap Bond:
Bricks are laid on edge or placed in a vertical position instead of the conventional horizontal position in these types of brick bonds and create a hollow space within the wall.
Due to the internal cavity, this type of walls consumes a smaller number of materials, and to design this bond skilled labor and extra care are needed.